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SyberWorks Learning and Performance Glossary


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Portfolio: samples of a student's work, carefully selected by the student and accompanied by formal criteria against which readers can judge the material.

Position Paper: a form of writing in which students use information from one or more written sources to support their opinions on a subject.

Post: (noun) messages that are placed on BBSs, newsgroups, blogs, etc., for others to read, (verb) the act of placing messages on BBSs, newsgroups, blogs, etc., for others to read.

Post-test: a criterion-referenced test designed to measure performance against objectives for a unit of instruction, and given after the instruction.

Power User: a sophisticated or 'uber' user of computer technology, software applications or systems. Power users are extremely well versed and experienced in the system or systems at hand.

PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol): a method for connecting two computers across a link that seems to be private, but actually travels over public phone lines or the Internet.

Practice Item: a learning activity, or series of questions, that reinforces instruction and ensures that students understand the mechanics of the testing system.

Practice: repeated exposure to concepts or tasks, to increase the probability that students remember them.

Precision Teaching: a method of delivering instruction based on a student's own measurements of their ability to perform (or not perform) defined observable criteria.

Predictions: forecasts developed by students to gauge their broader understanding of concepts.

Pre-Instructional Activities: methods for executing the following three events before delivering instructional content: (1) acquiring learners' attention, (2) advising them of any qualifications required and (3) telling them how they can apply their new knowledge after instruction is done.

Prescriptive Learning: a process that makes learning more meaningful, efficient and cost-effective, by providing coursework that matches identified learner skills and knowledge gaps.

Presentation: a speech set forth in words and visuals, to enlighten an audience or persuade them to commit themselves to a course of action.

Pre-test: a criterion-referenced test designed to measure performance against objectives that will be taught during instruction and/or to gauge related performance based on pre-training knowledge or behaviors. Given before instruction begins.

Progressive Discipline: a technique used to deal with job-related behavior that does not meet an organization's expected performance standards.

Problem Reversal: the act of solving problems by reversing questions and determining what not to do.

Problem-Based Learning (PBL): an inductive teaching method with no direct instruction. Instead, the instructor poses authentic (real-world) problems, and students learn related content and skills as they work together to solve the problems.

Problems: a question to be created, constructed, or solved, and which usually presents some difficulties and may require mathematical calculations.

Problem-Solving: a "Meaningful Use Task" that centers on overcoming constraints or limiting conditions.

Process of Elimination: removing options that are found to be impossible, illogical, or easily ruled out, as a result of explicit knowledge related to the entire set of options.

Professional Activities: behavior that enhances the skill and knowledge of instructional designers, training managers or other learning professionals. Examples include attending professional association meetings and conferences, reading relevant texts, and networking with other practitioners (in person or online).

Program: a unit of instruction consisting of two or more courses, modules, workshops or seminars.

Project: a plan or proposal undertaken by one or more students, to apply, illustrate or supplement classroom lessons.

Project Information Systems: organized processes and databases used to manage projects and resources.

Projection System: a device for showing video, television, or computer images on a large screen.

Proofreading: to read a copy or proof, specifically to find and correct errors.

PROP Advance Organizer: a structured format for reviewing what students should expect from upcoming instruction. Using a completed form, the teacher describes for students: Prior knowledge, Relationships, Organization, and Plan.

Pros and Cons: a list generated by students of the arguments for and against an idea.

Prosthesis: an artificial device that replaces a missing body part.

Protocol: a formal set of standards, rules and formats for exchanging data, which assures consistency between computers and applications.

Provocation: the teacher makes statements that are obviously unintelligent, to provoke students to generate statements or situations in which the statement makes sense.

Psychomotor Skill: execution of a sequence of major or subtle physical actions, to achieve a specified result.

Pull Technology: when referring to the Internet or other online services, a technology (such as Web browsers) that allows people to locate and "pull down" information into their computers.

Push Technology: when referring to the Internet or other online services, a technology that sends information directly to a user's computer, without their finding or requesting it.

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Waltham, MA 02452

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