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SyberWorks Learning and Performance Glossary


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Objectives: outlining the purpose and goals of an activity or project beforehand, to help students reach these goals.

Object-Oriented Programming: a type of computer programming that allows programmers to define data types, data structures, and the functions or operations to be applied to the objects. Languages for object-oriented programming include Java, Smalltalk and C++.

Observation Log: a journal kept by a student to help guide them and record their observations. Students are typically asked to answer specific questions as they fill in their observation logs.

Observation: a way for a teacher to assess a student's progress or to gather informal information about their needs and achievements.

Observational Learning: a learning theory, proposed by Albert Bandura, stating that the majority of human learning occurs through our observation of the behavior of others. This is often referred to as a "social learning" model or theory.

ODBC (Open Database Connectivity): an application program interface to access information from numerous types of databases, including Access, dbase, SQL Server, Oracle, and DB2.

On-Screen Keyboard: a keyboard that appears on-screen to accommodate users who have limited use of (or cannot use) their hands. Generally considered assistive technology, on-screen keyboards are usually used with a head pointer, when keyboard input is required.

One Sentence Summary: an activity in which students are asked to write a single summary sentence that answers the "who, what, where, when, why, and how" questions about a topic.

One-Way Presentation: any teaching format in which students are passive while information is presented to them. Examples include videos, lectures, and demonstrations.

Onground: a traditional classroom instructional setting.

Online Community: a meeting place on the Internet for people who share common interests and needs. Online communities may or may not be moderated, and may or may not require membership.

Online Learning: an umbrella term used to describe any education or training delivered by web-based or Internet-based technologies. See "WBT" or "IBT."

Online Training: web- or Internet-based training.

Online: the state in which a computer is connected to another computer or server over a network.

Open Discussion: the least structured form of discussion, where the teacher sets boundaries by describing the general topic, but the discussion follows and moves between students' interests.

Open Source Software: software for which the original program instructions (the source code) is widely available, so that users can access, modify and redistribute it. An example of such software is the Linux operating system.

Operant Conditioning: the theory that consequences (such as positive or negative reinforcements, punishments, or extinction) can modify future voluntary behaviors.

Opinion Sampling: the collecting of student opinions by teachers for the purpose of altering classroom structure.

Ordering: the practice of putting objects, concepts or numbers in a sequence.

Organic Model: an educational-reform movement in which teachers collaborate to govern school policies, rather then following guidelines from policy makers who are not involved in day-to-day classroom activities.

Organizational Mission: an explanation of the purpose, values, strategic position and long-term goals of the institution.

Organizational Philosophy: an explanation of an organization's values and beliefs with respect to how it plans to act in one or more broad environments.

Organizational Values: a stable set of long-term objectives and actions that an organization uses to make strategic choices.

Organizing: uses classifying, ordering, ranking and comparing to discover and build interactions and relations among objects and concepts.

Origination Site: the location from which a teleconference is launched.

Outline: a pared-down version of a larger presentation or writing piece, usually based on key phrases or sentences about the subject. Outlines may be arranged in the same order that the concepts will be presented in the final version. Outlines are used to guide the creation process in writing or planning, during a lecture to help students follow the concepts being presented, or by students in their own note-taking and studying.

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