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SyberWorks Learning and Performance Glossary


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Managing: giving students the responsibility to create and direct an activity or group to give students experience with organization and planning skills.

Manipulatives: objects or equipment used in the classroom that enable students to make connections to theories through touch.

Market Basket Analysis: a technique that assists organizations in predicting future sales by examining the current purchasing behavior of their customers.

Markup: codes or text added to a document to convey information about it. It is used to create a document's layout or produce links to other documents or information servers. An example of markup is HTML.

Mastery learning: objectives for learning are established and communicated to students. Students progress at own speed and continue to work until their performance indicates they have mastered each set of objectives.

MB (megabyte): 1,048,576 bytes and is roughly equivalent to one novel. A floppy disk stores 1.44MB, CDs over 600MB and DVDs around 17,000MBs (or 17 GBs) of information.

Mbps (megabits per second): the number of megabits transmitted or received each second; a measurement of data transmission speed in a communication system

Meaningful Use Tasks: long-term tasks described by Robert J. Marzano that allow students to make choices and then require students to apply what they have learned

Measuring: activities to determine the size, extent, or dimensions of objects or values

Media: the means by which instruction is presented to the learner and is typically classified in terms of the perceptual channels used, such as visual or auditory media

Memorization: actively organizing and working with concepts or terminology to improve incorporating those concepts into memory.

Mental models: understanding that existing knowledge is organized into patterns or models that help them explain phenomena. Learning involves adding to or altering the learner's existing mental models.

Mentoring: a process in which less experienced workers or students are matched with more experienced peers, colleagues, or teachers for guidance.

Message board: a place where teachers and students can post information or work that may be of interest to others in the classroom.

Message: a meaningful unit of communication that can be instructional, informational, or motivational and may be formatted in writing, visually or orally.

Metacognition: the process by which learners monitor their own thought processes to decide if they are learning effectively; “thinking about thinking.”

Metadata: information about content that enables it to be stored in and retrieved from a database.Metatag: a meta tag is a special HTML tag that provides information about a Web page. Meta tags do not affect how the page is displayed, but they provide information such as who created the page, how often it is updated, what the page is about, and which keywords represent the page's content.

Microteaching: a form of practice teaching in which the student prepares a short (6-15 minute) lesson and presents the lesson to peers for helpful evaluation

Microworld: a computer-based simulation with opportunities for manipulation of content and practice of skills.

Mind map: a graphic way of arranging information to show the interrelationships between concepts.

Minimalism: an instructional design approach coined by John M. Carroll that stresses the importance of providing learners with meaningful tasks early in instruction and allowing them to make and then correct errors. Learner's are given tasks to try and then supported as they make mistakes, rather than guiding users step-by-step through a new learning situation.

Minute papers: an end-of-class reflection exercise in which students write briefly to answer the questions: “What did you learn today?” and “What questions do you still have?”

M-learning (mobile learning): learning that takes place via such wireless devices as cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs) or laptop computers.

Mnemonics: any of several techniques or devices used to help remember or memorize names or concepts

Modality: delivery medium determined for the delivery of instruction; ranges from ILT, CBT, WBT and distance learning to paper based, read-ahead packages, journals and peer modeling.

Model: a simplified representation of a system showing selected features of the system. The model may be presented in picture, flowcharts, or other forms.

Modeling: the act of the teacher leading by example through the constant display exemplary behaviors and skills.

Models: a small object, usually built to scale, that represents in detail another, often larger object.

Modem: stands for MOdulator/DEModulator; a device that converts digital signals to analog for transmission, and analog signals back to digital upon reception

Modular: e-learning that is made up of standardized units that can be separated from each other, and be repurposed, rearranged or reused.

Module: an instructional package with a single integrated theme that serves as one component of a total course or curriculum

Monitor: To maintain regular surveillance, or close observation, over something. For example in a large online course, their may be a set of facilitators set up to monitor groups of students while an online instructor teaches the class.

Morphological analysis: analysis of the meaning of words based on their sub-parts, known as morphemes.

MP3: a format for a music file compression that enables users to download music over the Internet

MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group): a high-quality video file format that uses compression to keep file sizes relatively small.

MUD (multi-user dimension or multi-user domain): a simulated virtual world in which users interact with one another by taking on character identities called avatars.

Muddiest point: a question used to stimulate metacognitive thinking by asking students to name or describe the concept they understand the least (their muddiest point).

Multi-age groupings: a classroom that includes children of many ages and ability levels.

Multicasting: an audio, video, email, or application broadcast over the web, from one computer to many.

Multimedia: the combination of text, graphics, audio, colors to create used to present information in an engaging and dynamic way.

Multiple intelligences theory: a theory proposed by Howard Gardner that says each person has many intelligences (linguistic, musical, scientific etc.). These intelligences have the ability to work together and instructors should design lessons to foster the growth of all intelligences.

Multiple sclerosis: degeneration of the central nervous system due to a progressive deterioration of the protective sheath surrounding the nerves.

Multiple solutions: an exercise that requires students to find all acceptable solutions, not just the most logical or best solution.

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