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SyberWorks Learning and Performance Glossary


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Labeling: a form of classification that includes sorting and then naming a concept, object, action or event.

Lagging Indicators: a metric that focuses on the results of previous actions.

LAN (Local Area Network): a group of networked computers and devices, such as file servers, printers and modems, located in relative proximity, that allow users to communicate and share information.

Language Impairment: a difficulty in understanding and/or using language.

Lateral Thinking: consists of changing your perspective to solve a problem. Edward de Bono suggested lateral thinking as an approach to both problem-solving and creativity.

LCMS (Learning Content Management System): a software application or set of applications that manages the creation, storage, use and reuse of learning content.

Leading Indicators: a metric that focuses on current and future actions, which is used to predict future performance.

Learner Analysis: the determination of important characteristics of a target population. Such characteristics include prior knowledge and attitudes toward the content to be taught, and attitudes toward the organization and work environment. Learner Performance Data: information regarding the degree to which learners achieved defined objectives after completing a lesson.

Learner Profile Data: descriptions of learner characteristics relevant to instruction and training, including age, skill level, education and work experience.

Learner Specialist: a professional who is knowledgeable about, and understands, a specific learner population.

Learning: a cognitive and/or physical change in knowledge as a result the acquisition and application of information, knowledge, behaviors and/or attitudes.

Learning Centers: individual stations designed to extend knowledge introduced in whole-group instruction and to allow individual or paired students to explore resources.

Learning Context: the physical location(s) in which the instruction materials that are under development will be tested or used.

Learning Contract: a form of individualized, active learning where the student proposes a course of study (a "contract") to satisfy an academic requirement and a teacher checks and approves the contract. The student typically works independently until assistance is needed from the teacher, at which point it is the responsibility of the student to ask for help.

Learning Disability: characterizes a child with average or above-average potential who is limited through a difficulty in education in one or more areas. This child may display a severe discrepancy between their ability and their achievement.

Learning Environment: the physical or virtual setting in which learning takes place.

Learning Lab: an environment that offers tools and educational support, to allow learners to explore content at their own pace.

Learning Logs: written responses by students to the teacher, which summarize what they have learned or what they still do not understand. Teachers use them to gauge student progress.

Learning Modules: content designed to be used as units of instruction on a subject or concept.

Learning Object: a reusable, media-independent collection of information that is used as one building block for e-Learning content. Learning objects are most effective when organized by a metadata classification system and stored in a data repository, such as an LCMS.

Learning Objective: a statement of a measurable outcome that will be used to indicate how the learner's attainment of skills and knowledge will be measured.

Learning Packet: information and materials collected by the teacher to help a student make up for work that was missed (usually due to absence).

Learning Platforms: internal or external sites that contain technologies (chat rooms, groupware, etc) that enable users to submit and retrieve information. Such sites are often organized around tightly focused topics.

Learning Portal: any website that offers students or organizations secure access to learning and training from multiple sources.

Learning Solution: 1) any combination of technology and methodology that delivers learning 2) software and/or hardware products that vendors promote to answer business training needs.

Learning Space: an imaginary layout in which the learning enterprise is set up and prospers. This territory is a recent addition to the business landscape. Learning Style Inventory: assessments taken by students to learn about their learning styles and preferences.

Learning Styles: the categorization of an individual's strengths and weaknesses in a number of factors that usually affect learning. By assessing, and then planning for, each student's learning style, a teacher can improve the chances that each student will learn.

Lecture: a direct instructional method in which the teacher talks, to transmit information. Lectures may include visual aids or accompanying notes.

Legally Blind: a condition legally described as having 1) a visual field not greater than 20 degrees wide or 2) visual acuteness of 20/200 (or less) in the better eye after correction.

Library Research: using library resources (including databases) to enable students to supplement the information they find in textbooks and on the Internet. Teachers often provide guidelines for writing assignments and projects, to encourage students to become familiar with using library resources.

LINK (List, Inquire, Note, Know): an activity to help students activate prior knowledge before beginning a new topic.

Link: hypertext that is usually underlined to indicate a pointer that will automatically connect with either data or an outside resource.

List - Group - Label: an activity designed to help students activate prior knowledge before beginning a new topic by dividing a list of keywords into groups, and then labeling each group.

Listening Center: an audio center where students can listen individually to books on tape, music, news, language lessons, taped stories, or other audio resources.

Listening Comprehension: activities that encourage active and critical listening, such as reading passages aloud. Student understanding is then assessed through written or oral feedback.

Listing: the practice of listing words, objects and ideas, to organize thoughts before a writing activity. It also can be used as an assessment to demonstrate the student's ability to recall.

Listserv: an automatic email service that users subscribe to, for receiving future mailings.

LMS (Learning Management System): Learning management systems track synchronous, asynchronous, and online/offline training, monitor student progress, and record quiz/test scores, in an online learning environment. In addition, most LMS's have threaded discussions, online chats and integrated web conferencing. Most learning management systems come with a built-in course-authoring tool, but many LMS's can also run and manage training materials that are developed using other authoring tools (as long as the LMS and the authoring tools are both SCORM and AICC compliant).

Localization: the modification of an offering to meet the specific needs of a geographic area, product, or target audience.

Log In/On: the act of providing a user name and password to gain access to a computer, application, web site or file.

Log Off/Out: the act of disconnecting from a computer, application, web site or file.

Long-Term Projects: projects that are usually focused on a broad main theme, and which often attempt to research, and propose answers to, open-ended questions.

Looping: 1) an approach to writing that encourages students to write quickly, review, and select key points for another round of quick, more focused writing. Students continue looping until their writing meets some original specifications. 2) having a teacher teach the same class for more than one year.

Lotus Blossom Technique: a brainstorming method, in which the student first proposes eight new ideas from a central idea. For each of the eight ideas, the student then proposes and evaluates necessary details for implementing the ideas.

LRN (Learning Resource Interchange): an XML-based specification (supported by Microsoft and many other vendors) that gives content creators a standard way to identify, share, update and create online content and courseware. LRN is the first commercial application of the Content and Management Systems Specification developed by the e-Learning industry and the IMS Global Learning Consortium.

LSP (Learning Service Provider): a specialized ASP offering learning-management and training-delivery software on a hosted or rental basis.

Lurking: reading the postings in a discussion forum or on a listserv, but not contributing to the discussion.

Lynx: a text-only browser that is popular among people with disabilities, and which also helps users with low-bandwidth connections, since it avoids downloading graphics.

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