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SyberWorks Learning and Performance Glossary


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Ice Breakers: an exercise, presented as a game, to help people get familiar with each other in new situations and environments.

ICT (Information and Communication Technology): a generic name for all the technologies involved in communicating with computers.

Idea Recording: mechanisms to capture ideas whenever they occur.

Illustrating: the use of pictures or diagrams to clarify, explain or describe.

ILS (Integrated Learning System): a complete software, hardware and network system for instruction that provides curriculum and lessons organized by level. An ILS also includes a number of support tools, such as assessments, record keeping, report writing, and user-information files for identifying learning needs, monitoring progress, and maintaining student records.

ILT (Instructor-led Training): delivery of a course in a traditional classroom setting, where an instructor guides a group of students.

Image Map: an image that is logically separated into areas, each of which displays different related content when clicked. Often used on the Web in navigation links to related topics.

Imagineering: a fusion of imagination and engineering that helps learners visualize problem solutions using existing scientific knowledge.

IMS (Instructional Management System) Global Learning Consortium: coalition of government organizations dedicated to defining and distributing open architecture specifications for e-Learning products.

Inclusion: allowing all students to participate in the school community, regardless of their individual strengths or limitations.

Independent Practice: activities or exercises that are completed without any intervention from a teacher. Many of these activities are completed using a computer.

Individualization: tailoring training around the abilities, knowledge, skills, interests, motivations and goals of individual students.

Individualized Instruction: students systematically designing individual learning activities and materials, based on their interests, abilities and experiences.

Induction Matrix: a graphic organizer that users a grid to compare concepts and categories. The matrix is started at the beginning of a lesson, and as students learn, they update it to reflect their new knowledge.

Induction: using specific facts or ideas to build broader principles.

Inductive Inquiry: logical teaching that follows the methods of scientific inquiry. Steps usually include: searching literature, making observations, generating hypotheses, designing and performing experiments, analyzing results, and repeating the cycle.

Inductive Thinking: analyzing specific observations to reach general conclusions.

Inert Knowledge: knowledge a learner has acquired, but fails to activate in appropriate situations.

Inferring: a thinking skill that is demonstrated when a student makes conclusions based on content from reading, or from triggered prior knowledge.

Information Architecture: a design specification for how information should be treated and organized. In Web design, the term describes the organization of online content into categories and the creation of an interface for displaying those categories.

Information Commons: a virtual or physical space that is conducive to the effective sharing of ideas and information.

Information Mapping: a structured method for analyzing, organizing and visually presenting information, based on the needs of the target audience, learning theory, human-factors engineering and cognitive science. The process of Information Mapping was developed by Robert E. Horn, founder of Information Mapping, Inc. (http://www.infomap.com).

Information Processing Model: studies conducted by theorists to describe learning in terms of how memories are acquired and later accessed. Key theorists in this field include Robert M. Gagne and George A. Miller.

Infrastructure: the underlying base or framework of a system. In e-Learning, an infrastructure may include the means by which voice, video and data are transferred between sites and processed.

Innovating: altering text or work in such a way that the original format is still recognizable, but new concepts, contexts or ideas are introduced.

Inquiry: a system in which students solve problems or answer questions by forming tentative answers or hypotheses, and then analyzing collected data, to provide evidence for or against their hypotheses.

Instant Messaging (IM): the transmission of electronic messages over computer networks, using software that displays users' buddy lists (of friends, family, and co-workers) and immediately displays messages on recipients' screens.

Instruction: a planned process for conveying knowledge to learners and facilitating learning.

Instructional Analysis: a procedure applied to an instructional goal, to identify the primary and secondary skills that are required for students to achieve the goal.

Instructional Context: the physical and psychological environment in which instruction is delivered or in which knowledge transfer occurs.

Instructional Design: systematic instructional needs assessment, development, evaluation, implementation, and maintenance of materials and programs.

Instructional Design Theory: a collection of scientific doctrines relating to learner characteristics, instructional methods, learning environments and outcomes.

Instructional Designer: an individual who develops the methodology and delivery systems for presenting course content.

Instructional Goal: a generic statement of learner outcomes, related to an identified problem and a needs assessment that can be achieved through instruction.

Instructional Objective: a detailed explanation of what students should be able to do at the end of instruction.

Instructional Products: content-related objects, such as books, job aids, student and instructor guides, and web pages.

Instructional Strategy: a general approach to selecting and sequencing learning activities.

Instructional Systems Design: an organized process for developing a curriculum or instructional materials program.

Instructor's Manual: a collection of documents to help teachers use instructional materials.

Integration: combining hardware, software, and (in e-Learning) content into a functional system.

Integrative Learning Model: a holistic approach for strengthening multiple aspects of a student's life, including academic, physical, personal and emotional.

Intellectual Property: the technological or process knowledge and capabilities that an organization or individual has developed. Typically includes ideas, inventions, formulas, literary works, presentations, and other knowledge that is owned by an organization or individual and protected by a copyright.

Intellectual Skill: a skill that requires unique cognitive activities or involves manipulating cognitive symbols, as opposed to simply retrieving previously learned information.

Interactive Multimedia: two-way interaction with multimedia course material or other computers or users, involving direct responses as opposed to one-way communications from TV, video or other non-responsive media. Interactive attributes commonly include data or text entry, mouse input, touch screens, voice commands, video capture and real-time interaction.

Internet Explorer: a software browser made by Microsoft, Inc. that enables users to view web pages.

Internet: the global network of regional and local computer networks, which the U.S. government first created to link private education and research networks. The Internet provides communications and application services to an international base of businesses, consumers, educational institutions, governments and research organizations.

Internet-based Training: training delivered primarily by TCP/IP network technologies, such as email, newsgroups, proprietary applications, and so forth. Internet-based training is not necessarily delivered over the World Wide Web, and may not use the HTTP and HTML technologies that make Web-based training possible.

Interoperability: the ability of hardware or software components to work together effectively.

Interpolation of Data: an exercise in which students calculate a value that would be between two known data points.

Intranet: an internal computer network owned by a company or organization and accessible only to designated staff or personnel.

Invention Teaching: a constructivist approach in which students begin learning with an activity, but are allowed to generate many possible solutions. Students acquire basic and advanced knowledge in self-directed, random order.

Inverted Pyramid: a writing format in which the most important information appears first, followed by the next most important information, and closing with the least important information. Also called “top-down” writing.

Investigation: identifying what is known about a topic. The three basic types include Definitional (“What are...?”), Historical (“How...?” or “Why...?”), and Projective (“What if...?”).

IP (Internet Protocol): an international standard for formatting, addressing and sending data over the Internet.

IP Multicast: delivery of content over a network from a single source to multiple recipients using the Internet Protocol (IP).

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network): a telecommunications protocol that allows telephone lines (or other types of cable) to carry independent simultaneous data, voice and video channels.

ISO (International Organization for Standardization): sets standards for many businesses and technologies, including communications and computing.

ISP (Internet Service Provider): a hosting company that provides end-user access to such Internet services as email, the World Wide Web, FTP file exchanges, and newsgroups.

IT (Information Technology): the industry or discipline that develops, installs and implements computer and network systems and applications.

IT Training: using centralized and desktop information systems to provide technical training in areas such as system infrastructure software, application software, and application development tools.

Item Analysis Table: presents evaluation data about the percentage of a student's dependence on memory, when performing a complex task.

ITFS (Instructional Television Fixed Service): microwave-based, high-frequency television used in educational program delivery.

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