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SyberWorks Learning and Performance Glossary


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Directive Model: teacher-centered training model that focuses on student activities, with teacher guidance and coordinated transmission of information.

Disability: a physical or mental impairment that renders tasks performed by an individual more difficult or impossible to achieve. The result of a physical or mental condition that prevents one from developing, achieving or functioning in an educational setting at a normal pace.

Disability Rights Commission (DRC): the Disability Rights Commission's goal is to eliminate discrimination against disabled people. It started operations on 25th April 2000.

Disc/Disk: see floppy disk, hard disk, or CD-ROM.

Disk Drive: the part of a computer that reads and writes data to a floppy disk, hard disk, or optical disk (CD, CD-ROM, DVD, DVD-ROM, etc.)

Discrimination: distinguishing one stimulus from another and responding differently to the various stimuli. Failing to make reasonable adjustments, where physical arrangements or features place a disabled person at a substantial disadvantage.

Discussion: classroom discussions typically begin with the teacher describing the goal or purpose of the discussion. A discussion may be initiated by posing an open-ended question. Teachers then employ techniques to encourage students to participate in the discussion, including calling on specific individuals, or assigning individuals to pose as "experts" or leaders during the discussion. Many cooperative activities include small- group discussions, as teams work together.

Discussion Board: an Internet or intranet forum where users can post messages for others to read.

Discussion Forum: a place where people can exchange messages of common interest.

Discussion Group: in the classroom, a discussion group is formed when a discussion is carried out by a portion of the class. Outside the classroom, discussion groups are composed of individuals with similar interests. These groups meet regularly to discuss issues of interest.

Discussion Web: a form of discussion that starts with individual students formulating a response to a question, then students pair up to reformulate their response, and the pairs combine into groups of four, to reformulate again. These larger groups then share their final answers with the entire class.

Distance Education: a training situation in which the instructor and students are separated by time, location, or both. Education or training courses are delivered to remote locations via synchronous learning or asynchronous learning, through one-on-one or one-on-many channels, plus written correspondence, text/graphic/CD-ROM exchanges, audio/video conferencing, online learning, interactive TV, and FAX. Distance Education does not preclude the use of the traditional classrooms. Distance Education is broader than, and includes, e-Learning.

Distance Learning: often used synonymously with Distance Education, but which is actually Distance Education's desired outcome.

Distributed Learning: often used synonymously with Distance Learning, but which is actually Distance Learning's desired outcome, from both online and traditional training-delivery methods.

D-LINK: an accessibility link in the form of a capital "D" near an image. It provides a longer description of the image or its purpose than is feasible using alt text.

DO IT: Define problem, Open self to new ideas, Identify best solution, Transform idea to action.

Domain: a cluster of related competencies. Also a subject-matter area.

Domain of Learning: a type of learning outcome that is distinguished by the type of learning performance required, the type of mental processing required, and the relevant conditions of learning.

Double Cell Diagram: a form of graphic organizer linking two items.

Download: (noun) A file that's transferred or copied to a user's computer from a connected computer, network, commercial online service, or Internet/intranet site. (verb) To transfer or copy a file to a user's computer from connected computer, network, commercial online service, or Internet/intranet site.

Down's Syndrome: a congenital condition in which chromosomal abnormalities result in a specific kind of mental retardation.

Drafts: students complete writing or creative work in stages, to facilitate progress from early idea capture, through increasingly detailed revisions and edits. (See Quintillion Progression).

Drill: practice by repetition, often used to reinforce grammar and basic math skills.

Drive Reduction: a theory of learning developed by Clark Hull that describes the drives (needs) individuals have, and says that learning occurs because individuals strive to reduce their drives (to satisfy their needs).

DRTA (Directed Reading Thinking Activity): throughout reading, questions are used to activate students' existing knowledge. Students are then encouraged to make predictions.

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line): a broadband Internet access method for high-speed data transfer over copper telephone lines. DSL is available to subscribers within a certain distance of their telephone company's Central Office.

DTD: a file that defines how applications that are interpreting a document should display its content. It is used in HTML, XML, and other markup languages.

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative: an open forum engaged in the development of interoperable online metadata standards that support a broad range of purposes and business models.

DVD: Digital Video Disk (also sometimes referred to as Digital Versatile Disk). A storage medium that uses optical technology to write and play back audio, video, text, and other information in digital form. Offers far greater capacity than CDs.

DVI (Digital Video Interactive): a format for recording digital-video onto compact disk, with both compression and full-motion images.

Dyads: a group of two students.

Dynamic Capabilities: an organization's ability to integrate, build, and reconfigure its competencies (both internal and external) to keep up with rapidly changing business environments.

Dyscalculia: a learning disability that impairs a child's ability to do math problems.

Dysfluency: a break in the smooth flow of speech; stuttering.

Dysgraphia: a learning disability that impairs a child's ability to write.

Dyslexia: a learning disability that impairs a child's ability to read.

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