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SyberWorks Learning and Performance Glossary


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Content Stability: the degree to which information to be learned is likely to remain current or "fresh."

Context Clues: unfamiliar words encountered by students, where clues to the meanings of the words usually exist within the same sentence. The meanings of words may be surmised by analyzing the context or environment around the word.

Contextual Model: based on the philosophy that culture and other environmental contexts must be considered when teaching children.

Contracts: formal agreements between individuals and organizations. For a contract to be effective or legitimate, some action is performed by one party to the contract, and this party then receives something of value in return. In a training "contract," students perform the act of focusing their attention and behaving well, and if successful, they are rewarded with grades, passing statuses, and (in professional settings) certifications.

Contrasting: to put two concepts into opposition, in order to explore or describe their differences.

Convergence: when different types of digital information (text, audio and video) and delivery mechanisms (television, telecommunications and consumer electronics) are integrated into new forms and products. An example of convergence is WebTV (televisions plus computer technology).

Cookie: a small text file placed on your computer by a web site, to record information about your visit to the site. Cookies can be erased from users' computers and their automatic collection disabled in web browsers.

Co-op: a cooperative learning method where groups work together to prepare and present a topic to the whole class. Students themselves select topics, choose partners, divide labor, determine methods of presentation, etc.

Cooperative Conflict Resolution: a cooperative approach to learning that focuses on how to prepare and discuss arguments.

Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC): a cooperative approach to reading, in which students work in pairs to practice and prepare for assessments.

Cooperative Learning Model: a learning approach where students share knowledge with each other through a variety of arrangements. Cooperative learning includes five components: positive interdependence, face-to-face interactions, individual accountability, some structured activity, and team-building skills.

Cooperative Review: a reviewing technique where groups take turns asking other groups questions. This method is often conducted as a game, where points are awarded to the team that answers each question correctly.

Copying: a way to encourage students to look more carefully at something by have them reproduce drawings, text, motions, etc.

Core Capability: an advantage that an organization has built over time, which therefore cannot be easily imitated.

Corporate University: a learning organization with a governance system that aligns all learning activities with the organization's missions, strategies and goals. The governing board consists of the CEO, other senior executives, and a chief learning officer (CLO), who is responsible for the organization's learning investment.

Courseware: any type of instructional or educational program delivered via a software program or over the Internet.

CPU (Central Processing Unit): technically, the actual chip that handles most of the computer's processing. But this term is often applied to this main processor chip, plus the non-disk memory, storage buffers, interface ports, and power supply that are on the "mother board."

Crawford Slip Writing: a thinking-speed activity, in which students are given a pad of paper with text and graphical prompts, to which they should respond as quickly as possible. This technique can be used with older students to generate ideas, or with younger students as a form of un-graded assessment.

Criterion: a benchmark against which a performance or product is measured.

Critical Success Factors: key factors that can ensure successful performance within an organization.

Criterion-Referenced Assessment: student performance compared to a standard or objective set by the instructor. It is possible for all students to earn the highest possible grade if all meet the set criteria for that grade. (also refer to Norm-Referenced Assessment).

Criterion-Referenced Test Items: items designed to evaluate performance against set objectives; also known as Objective-Referenced Test Items.

Criticality: the degree to which a behavior or conduct is regarded as essential to a job.

Criticizing: a thinking skill involving analyzing and judging.

Critique: where students read and respond to written work by summarizing its content and evaluating the source's truth, relevance and viewpoint.

CRM (Customer Relationship Management): software and Internet tools that help a company identify and categorize its customers and manage relationships with them.

Cross-Checking: using multiple sources of information to ensure that the resulting writing, or other learning content, is accurate.

Cross-Functional Teams: teams in which instructional designers work with specialists in other fields, such as organizational development, multi-media development, and engineering.

Cross-Pollination: an activity that allows students to share ideas during investigation of problems.

CROWN: acronym for Communicate what you learned, React, Offer one sentence that summarizes the lesson, Where are some different places you could use this?, and Note how well we did today. Is used as a closure technique, which encourages students to reflect on the completed lesson.

C-SOOPS (Capitalization, Sentence structure, Organization, Overall format, Punctuation, Spelling): an acronym to help students remember the aspects of their writing that they should check when editing.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheet): a means of applying unique formatting styles to web pages. Its advantages include more powerful, flexible formatting. CSS also lets web designers separate content from design, and as a result make the content more "accessible."

Cueing: various methods used by teachers, writers, and designers to make students aware of important material.

Curriculum: a large body of organized and sequential instruction, consisting of courses in an area of specialization.

Customer-focused e-Learning: technology-based learning programs offered by a company and targeted to their current and prospective customers. The intent is to increase brand loyalty among existing customers and to attract new business.

Cyberspace: the term coined by William Gibson in Neuromancer, to describe the nebulous "place" where humans interact over computer networks.

Cybersquatting: registering or using a domain name to illicitly benefit from another person or organization’s trademark.

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