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SyberWorks Learning and Performance Glossary


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Clarifying Table: a graphic organizer that clarifies new material by connecting the subject to other ideas or examples.

Classification: the grouping and labeling of similar concepts and ideas. When students create their own classifications, they practice innovation and discovery and apply prior knowledge about the concepts being classified.

CLO (Chief Learning Officer): the person responsible for strategic human-capital development. The CLO ensures that all learning investments center on achieving the organization's mission, policy and objectives; forms a culture of constant learning; promotes communities of improved performance; incorporates training roles; and urges cultural transformation.

Closure: activities that summarize a subject at its end. They help students review what they have learned, and build a bridge between the new knowledge and the learning objectives.

Clue: a group problem-solving activity in which each team member receives a different piece of information, and all members must work together to build the bigger picture.

Cluster Analysis: a method of exploratory analysis that groups people or things by common characteristics of interest to the researcher. It can characterize the behavior or interests of different customer clusters, so that promotion and design can be targeted to them.

Clustering: a graphic way of organizing all concepts that are proposed during brainstorming. (similar to concept-mapping).

CMI (Computer Managed Instruction): a feature built into a computer training system that feeds information about a student's progress or results to a central learning-management system.

Coaching: a process where a more experienced person in a field (the coach) guides and assesses students or workers, with the objective of improving their performance.

CoD (Content on Demand): the immediate delivery over a network of information packaged in a media format. Variants include Audio on Demand (AoD) and Video on Demand (VoD).

Codec (Coder/Decoder): a device that performs analog-to-digital conversion on signal transmission, and digital-to-analog conversion upon reception, while also compressing the signal to reduce transmission time and cost.

Cognitive: a term for conscious mental activities, including remembering, reasoning, understanding and using judgment. A cognitive disability refers to difficulty in learning.

Cognitive Apprenticeship: its two main forms involve students 1) working with instructors on problems that may be too difficult to tackle without aid and 2) focusing on real-world problems, to reiterate the material and increase understanding of the subject.

Cognitive Dissonance: a model proposed by Leon Festiner that asserts people often have two conflicting or inconsistent cognitions, which can produce mental tension or discomfort. People are then motivated to reduce the dissonance, often in the easiest manner possible.

Cognitive Flexible Theory: a theory of learning for advanced knowledge. Advanced knowledge is seen as less rule-based and rigid than introductory knowledge. The theory recommends approaching content from multiple facets through various analogies, with the use of hypertext-based instruction.

Cognitive Learning Models: a theory based on the philosophy that learning occurs when the learner and the environment interact, which can help change the student's mental approach and activities.

Cognitive Map: the structure of the human mind, through which we interpret objects, events and concepts.

Collaboration Technology: a secure, self-contained environment that allows people at different locations to communicate and work with each other using common software and services. This technology includes document management, application sharing, presentation development, whiteboarding, delivery, chat, and more.

Collaborative Filtering: seeking information or patterns through the collaboration of several agents, data sources, or viewpoints.

Collaborative Learning: involves two or more students working together, to better understand a subject through activities and discussion.

Collaborative Tools: tools that enable the sharing of knowledge and best practices.

Collective Notebook: a notebook maintained by a group, in which each member adds an idea or observation during a specified time period (typically each day or each week). The contents of the notebook are regularly discussed among group members.

Color Coding: a system of labeling learning materials or concepts using colors to differentiate the classifications of different materials.

Color Blindness: an abnormal condition characterized by the inability to clearly distinguish some colors of the spectrum. People with this condition are not actually blind, they just tend to see colors in a limited range of hues, or to not see individual colors like red or green.

Common Carrier: a government-regulated company that provides public communication-transmission services (such as phone companies).

Communities of Interest: individuals who share common business or professional interests.

Comparing: to observe or consider both the similarities and differences between objects, concepts or ideas.

Comparison Matrix: a way to graphically organize information gathered by students, to assist them in comparing the objects or concepts.

Competency: a skill or knowledge that enables one to successfully carry out the activities of a profession to the standards expected for employment.

Competency Management: a system used to assess skills, knowledge, and performance within an organization. When weaknesses are found, training, compensation, and recruiting programs are then applied, based on the current or future needs of the company.

Competitions: a useful tactic in motivating students to learn. Team competitions are especially effective in the classroom, if they are tied to a collaborative practice exercise or to a subject review before an exam.

Completed Work Chart: a way for students to see what assignments they have completed throughout a class. Assignments are listed along the top, and students' names vertically down the left side. When a student finishes an assignment, the teacher marks out the box for that assignment on the chart. Students can quickly see if they are missing any work. The chart is also used as a reporting mechanism, to let students know what work they still need to do to receive credit.

Complex Goal: a goal that involves more than one area of learning.

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